It is really important, as you read, to keep a log of what you read. This will often form part of your assignment and it is called ‘Referencing’.

There is referencing software which can help you with your referencing, for example:

  • Microsoft Word has a tab called Referencing for keeping simple references
  • End Note- available at the University
  • Mendeley
  • Zotero

When you reference something, you are providing evidence of where you have obtained your information, so you will collect key information. This could include:

  • Author
  • Title
  • Date
  • Publisher

This is standardised and depends on the referencing style that you are using and the format of the published work.
e.g. A book referenced in APA style:
Esgate, A., Groome, D., & Baker, K. (2005). An introduction to applied cognitive psychology. Psychology Press.
A website referenced in Harvard style:
Google (2020) Google terms of service. Available at: (Accessed: 11 May 2020).

Use of references: Bibliography and In-text
You will use your reference in two ways. The examples above are the full versions which you use in your Bibliography or References at the end of a piece of work. But, you should use a shortened version when you mention the reference in text in your work:
An ‘in-text’ citation of a book in APA style:
One study found that the most important element in comprehending non-native speech is familiarity with the topic (Gass & Varonis, 1984).

Next: How to read academic work

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